Today lifestyle diseases are on a rise in India affecting even the young. Cases of diabetes and hypertension is on the rise and even common among children in India. But small lifestyle changes can prevent these lifestyle diseases. ‘Fit India Movement’ is an effort to bring these small lifestyle changes.( Swasth vyakti, swasth parivar aur swasth samaj) .
By looking at the issues below we try to understand the Relevance of Fit India Movement.
- Factors such as high levels of stress, increased incidence of diabetes, blood pressure, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, lack of exercise and lack of proper sleep were contributing to cardiovascular diseases. NCDs are often a direct result of lifestyle and environmental factors and some of the modifiable behaviour such as harmful consumption of alcohol, tobacco use and unhealthy diet combined with sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity all contribute to the risk of chronic diseases.
- According to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) report entitled “India: Health of the Nation’s States”, Contribution of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) to total death in the Country was 61.8% in 2016, as compared to 37.9% in 1990.
- Nearly 61% of deaths in India are now attributed to non-communicable diseases, including heart disorders, cancer and diabetes, according to new data released by the World Health Organisation. The report put deaths due to NCDs in India at 5,817,000 in 2017.
- A report by the World Economic Forum estimates that India stands to lose about 3.5 trillion dollars between 2012 to 2030 due to NCDs and mental health conditions.
- A report published in The Lancet shows that, for people between the age of 30 and 70 in India, the risk of dying from one of the four major NCDs is 20 per cent in women and 27 per cent in men.
- NCD (Non-Communicable Diseases) related SDG target set for all countries is to achieve one-third reduction in NCD related mortality between the ages of 30 and 70 by 2030, relative to 2015.
- As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS); 2015-16, 11% of women (1 in 10) and 15% of men (1 in 7) of age 15-49 are hypertensive. The survey has also found that about 60.4% of persons screened have ever had their blood pressure measured.
- Fewer than 10% adults in India follow the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended regimen of at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity through the week, according to an ongoing pan-India study across 25 states by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation.
- The study, which is part of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study and the most comprehensive analysis of physical activity patterns across states, has found that women are far less active than men.
- Only 3% women meet the minimum healthy levels of physical activity, which brings a clutch of health benefits such as the reduced risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast/colon cancer, obesity, depression and falls, as well as improvement in bone and functional health.
- Globally, 27.5% people are “insufficiently physically active” and not meeting WHO norms, with women being less active than men, according to data from 168 countries, which included 1.9 million people, published in The Lancet in 2018.
- Physical inactivity damages health as much as obesity and smoking. It is the fourth-leading risk factor for death (6% of deaths globally) and the leading cause of 21-25% of breast and colon cancers, 27% of diabetes, and 30% of cardiovascular disease.
- It’s scientifically established that regular and sufficient physical activity improves muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness, improves bone and functional health, reduces risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, various types of cancer (including breast cancer and colon cancer), and depression; reduces the risk of falls and hip or vertebral fractures; and improves weight control.
- While evidence of the benefits of physical activity is growing, most countries have failed to scale up effective intervention at the population level.
- Asking people to be more physically active is not enough. WHO’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity launched last summer proposes solutions to strengthen leadership, governance, workforce capabilities, and advocacy to create a social movement to address the complex problem of physical inactivity.
- It’s essential to create a physical, social and political environment that makes physical activity desirable, accessible and safe, and this can be done with cross-sectoral collaboration between civic agencies, town planners, private companies, non-profits, clubs and the community, according to WHO.
- National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented under the National Health Mission (NHM). The objectives of the programme include health promotion activities and opportunistic screening for common Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) including cancer.
- Population based screening of common NCDs, i.e. diabetes, hypertension and cancers (Oral, Breast and Cervical cancer) has also been initiated under National Health Mission (NHM).
- Key components of population based screening include community based risk assessment, screening, referral, and follow up of all individuals of 30 years and above for common NCDs (hypertension, diabetes, oral cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer).
- The initiative will help in early diagnosis and will generate awareness on risk factors of NCDs.
- To address the issue of High Fat, Sugar and Salt (HFSS) in food and associated health risks, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) constituted an Expert Group. FSSAI has issued draft Guidelines titled ‘Guidelines for making available Wholesome, Nutritious, Safe and Hygienic Food to School Children in India’.
- A healthy lifestyle booklet has been developed for the school children.
- National Health Policy (NHP), 2017, which aims at attainment of the highest possible level of good health and well-being, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence.
- The policy seeks to move away from Sick- care to Wellness, with thrust on prevention and Health promotion.
- Half the battle is won when everyone is made aware of the ill-effects of unhealthy lifestyle
- Lower and middle income countries such as India also face environmental and social challenges that become deterrents to activity, such as rapid urbanisation, which leads to unplanned growth of cities, high migration, large populations, chaotic transportation, encroached pavements, air pollution, and high ambient temperature.
- Trees and green spaces within a 0.5km radius of homes, workplaces, and schools have been shown to lower the risks of death, cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer and depression, and better cognitive development in children.
- Apart from adequate quality public transport and wider pavements, there is need for more tree cover on active transport roads, green spaces to lower the ambient air temperature and mitigate noise pollution, and lower air pollution to make outdoor activities more comfortable.
- Instead of widening roads for motorised transport at the cost of trees, pavements and green spaces, governments should focus on pedestrians and other active transport priorities like public transport. A measure of development of a country is how well we treat pedestrians and those using active transport.
- Progressive interventions, especially those targeting women, are needed to create a safe space for women.
- Physical activity, which is defined as at least 30 minutes of sustained walking, dancing, running, swimming, or playing a sport, can take any form.
- Kerala made headlines in 2016 for its 14,5 percent ‘fat tax’, hoping to reduce the consumption of NCD causing junk food by making it pricier. However, even then public health experts had pointed out that sugar was a bigger culprit
In adults aged 18–64, physical activity includes leisure time physical activity (for example: walking, dancing, gardening, hiking, swimming), transportation (e.g. walking or cycling), occupational (i.e. work), household chores, play, games, sports or planned exercise, in the context of daily, family, and community activities. In order to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, bone health, reduce the risk of NCDs and depression:
- Adults aged 18–64 should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity throughout the week or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
- Aerobic activity should be performed in bouts of at least 10 minutes duration.
- For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or engage in 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
- Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week.
Will be updated regularly !