Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released the National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP), 2016 here yesterday. This is the first ever national plan prepared in the country.
Download National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) PDF 4.5 mb.
here are some selected excerpts from the documents and Posting Drought issue in full as it has affected large area of the country and very hot topic.
The aim of the plan is to make India disaster resilient it will help to maximize the ability of the country to cope with disasters at all levels by integrating disaster risk reduction into development and by increasing the preparedness to respond to all kinds of disasters.
The plant takes into account The Global trends in disaster management it corporate the approach in the Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015- 2030 which is an agreement under the United Nations to which India is a signatory .
Well natural hazards are beyond our control comma power capability to reduce risk risks, prevent losses comma repair, respond, and recovery has improved significantly we have considerably enhanced our technical capabilities in forecasting and closely monitoring hazards like cyclone nevertheless we still have to strive to make our disaster management system to rank among the very best in the world.
while the national plan provides the overall direction and sets out a national goal it is for various Ministries and apartments to develop their own specific disaster management plans including separate response plans and necessary standard operating procedures with the effort of NDMA this National plan has been prepared.
3 major Landmark agreements which have significant impact on disaster management they are
- Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction
- Sustainable development goals
- Paris agreement on climate change under the UNFCCC
The Sendai framework has a sharper focus on preventing the creation of new risks and places enormous emphasis on improving the Government of disaster risk reduction. why is the sustainable development goals and Paris agreement notes the urgent need to take into the account the increasing frequency of extreme weather events due to global climate change.
The national disaster management plan is highly ambitious it has short medium and long term goals which will be completed within the time frames of 5, 10 and 15 years.
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act 2005) lays down institutional and coordination mechanism for effective Disaster Management (DM) at the national, state, district and local levels.As mandated by this Act, the Government of India (GoI) created a multi-tiered institutional system consisting of the
- National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) headed by the Prime Minister,
- the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the respective Chief Ministers and the
- District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the District Collectors and co-chaired by Chairpersons of the local bodies.
These bodies have been set up to facilitate a paradigm shift from the hitherto relief-centric approach to a more proactive, holistic and integrated approach of strengthening disaster preparedness, mitigation, and emergency response.
The NDMP is envisaged as ready for activation at all times in response to an emergency in any part of the country. It is designed in such a way that it can be implemented as needed on a flexible and scalable manner in all phases of disaster management:
- a) mitigation (prevention and risk reduction),
- b) preparedness,
- c) response and
- d) recovery (immediate restoration to long-term betterment reconstruction).
What is Sendai Framework
The NDMP is consistent with the approaches promoted globally by the United Nations, in particular the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (hereafter “Sendai Framework”) adopted at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015 (UNISDR 2015a) as the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis. However, India will make all efforts to contribute to the realization of the global targets by improving the entire disaster management cycle in India by following the recommendations in the Sendai Framework and by adopting globally accepted best practices.
The Sendai Framework was the first international agreement adopted within the context of the post-2015 development agenda. Two other major international agreements followed it in the same year: the Sustainable Development Goals 2015 – 2030 in September, and the UNCOP21 Climate Change agreement to combat human-induced climate change in December. DRR is a common theme in these three global agreements. The Paris greement on global climate change points to the importance of averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including extreme weather events and slow onset events, and the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage. These three agreements recognize the desired outcomes in DRR as a product of complex and interconnected social and economic processes, which overlap across the agendas of the three agreements. Intrinsic to sustainable National Disaster Management Plandevelopment is DRR and the building of resilience to disasters. Further, effective disaster risk
management contributes to sustainable development.
In the domain of disaster management, the Sendai Framework provides the way forward for the
period ending in 2030. There are some major departures in the Sendai Framework:
- For the first time the goals are defined in terms of outcome-based targets instead of focusing on sets of activities and actions.
- It places governments at the center of disaster risk reduction with the framework emphasizing the need to strengthen the disaster risk governance.
- There is significant shift from earlier emphasis on disaster management to addressing disaster risk management itself by focusing on the underlying drivers of risk.
- It places almost equal importance on all kinds of disasters and not only on those arising from natural hazards.
- In addition to social vulnerability, it pays considerable attention to environmental aspects through a strong recognition that the implementation of integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches is needed for disaster reduction
- Disaster risk reduction, more than before, is seen as a policy concern that cuts across many sectors, including health and education
As per the Sendai Framework, in order to reduce disaster risk, there is a need to address existing challenges and prepare for future ones by focusing on monitoring, assessing, and understanding disaster risk and sharing such information. The Sendai Framework notes that it is “urgent and critical to anticipate, plan for and reduce disaster risk” to cope with disaster. It requires the strengthening of disaster risk governance and coordination across various institutions and sectors. It requires the full and meaningful participation of relevant stakeholders at different levels. It is necessary to invest in the economic, social, health, cultural and educational resilience at all levels. It requires investments in research and the use of technology to enhance multi-hazard Early Warning Systems (EWS),
preparedness, response, recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.
The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:
- Understanding disaster risk
- Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
- Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
- Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in
recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
India is a signatory to the Sendai Framework for a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders. It aims for the “substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods, and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities, and countries.” India will make its contribution in achieving the seven global targets set by the Sendai Framework:
- Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower the average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005– 2015;
- Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower the average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020–2030 compared to the period 2005–2015; National Disaster Management Authority
- Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030;
- Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030;
- Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020;
- Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of the present Framework by 2030;
- Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to people by 2030.
Types of Disasters
Primarily disasters are triggered by natural hazards or human-induced, or result from a combination
of both.Natural HazardsThe widely accepted classification system used by the Disaster Information Management System of DesInventar 4 classifies disasters arising from natural hazards into five major categories
- 1) Geophysical: Geological process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Hydro-meteorological factors are important contributors to some of these processes. Tsunamis are difficult to categorize; although they are triggered by undersea earthquakes, and other geological events, they are essentially an oceanic process that is manifested as a coastal water-related hazard.
- 2) Hydrological: Events caused by deviations in the normal water cycle and/or overflow ofbodies of water caused by wind set-up
- 3) Meteorological: Events caused by short-lived/small to meso-scale atmospheric processes (in the spectrum from minutes to days)
- 4) Climatological: Events caused by long-lived meso- to macro-scale processes (in the spectrum from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal climate variability)
- 5) Biological: Process or phenomenon of organic origin or conveyed by biological vectors,including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.
The NPDM notes that rise in population, rapid urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation, and climate change aggravates the vulnerabilities to various kinds of disasters. Due to inadequate disaster preparedness, communities, and animals are at increased risk from many kinds of human-induced hazards arising from accidents (industrial, road, air, rail, on river or sea, building collapse, fires, mine flooding, oil spills, etc.). Chemical,Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) hazards rank very high in among the human-induced risks. Terrorist activities and secondary incidents add to these risks and call for adequate preparedness and planning.
Levels of Disasters
The disaster management and its planning at various tiers must take into account the vulnerability of disaster-affected area, and the capacity of the authorities to deal with the situation. Using this approach, the High Power Committee on Disaster Management 5 , in its report of 2001, categorized disaster situations into three ‘levels’: L1, L2, and L3. The period of normalcy, L0, should be utilized for disaster risk reduction.
- Level-L1: The level of disaster that can be managed within the capabilities and resources at the District level. However, the state authorities will remain in readiness to provide assistance if needed.
- Level-L2: This signifies the disaster situations that require assistance and active mobilization of resources at the state level and deployment of state level agencies for disaster management. The central agencies must remain vigilant for immediate deployment if required by the state.
- Level-L3: This corresponds to a nearly catastrophic situation or a very large-scale disaster that overwhelms the State and District authorities.
The categorization of disaster situations into levels L0 to L3 finds no mention in DM Act 2005.Further, the DM Act does not have any provision for notifying any disaster as a ‘national calamity’ or a ‘national disaster’.