Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change. Climate change mitigation generally involves reductions in human (anthropogenic) emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Mitigation may also be achieved by increasing the capacity of carbon sinks, e.g., through reforestation. Mitigation policies can substantially reduce the risks associated with human-induced global warming.
- United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro. 1992(Rio Earth Summit) —172 countries participated, 108 at level of heads of State or Government – Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. the Statement of Forest Principles, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity
- 1997 Kyoto Protocol- Annex I Parties commit to take binding reduction targets
- 2007 Bali COP: Introduction of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), to engage developing countries in voluntary mitigation effort
- 2009- 2010 (Copenhagen & Cancun COP): comprehensive intemational system for collective action and major developing countries (including India) announced voluntary mitigation pledges
- 2011 Durban COP: ADP launched for evolving a new agreement for post-2020 period
- Warsaw & Lima COP INDC concept for all countries
- 19th COP in Warsaw (2013): All countries required to prepare INDCs and present them before COP 21 in Paris
- 20th COP in Lima (2014) : Further clarity on form of INDC: not mitigation centric and can include other components as per country priorities
- 21st COP Paris.