Restructuring of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan into Swachh Bharat Mission

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister, today gave its approval for restructuring of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) into Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and revision in the components of the programme.

NBA will be restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission with two sub-Missions –

  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) by  Ministries of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
  •  Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban). by Ministry of Urban Development.

Necessary changes will be made from the RE Budget for 2014-15 onwards. The Mission will be kick-started on 2nd October 2014. If necessary, funds may be provided by re-appropriation or from the Contingency Fund.

The programme includes

  •  elimination of open defecation
  • conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets,
  • eradication of manual scavenging,
  • Municipal Solid Waste Management,
  • bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices,
  • generating awareness among citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health,
  • strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems to fulfill these objectives
  • creating an enabling environment for private sector participation in capital expenditure and operational expenditure.
  • Transfer of the responsibility of construction of all School toilets to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development. 


Efforts of the State Governments for promoting rural sanitation have been supplemented by the Central Government, till 1999 under the centrally sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), from 1999 to 2012 under the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and thereafter under the NBA.

However, the interventions so far, have as per Census 2011 resulted in 32.70 percent of rural households having access to toilets in rural areas, while as per the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 2013 estimates 40.6 percent of rural households have such access.

The goal now is to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by improving the levels of cleanliness in rural areas and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF).

For this, the Swachh Bharat Mission will be launched with a new thrust to the sanitation programme, by removing bottlenecks that are hindering progress currently, and focusing on critical issues affecting outcomes.

Swachh Bharat is proposed to be achieved through:-

  • coverage of all rural households with IHHLs, cluster toilets, community toilets (including through PPP mode), construction of school and anganwadi toilets and SLWM activities in all Gram Panchayats;
  • creation of enhanced demand, convergent action through various agencies and stakeholders with triggering through enhanced IEC, Inter Personal Communication (IPC);
  • Strengthening of implementation and delivery mechanisms;
  • Monitoring Outputs (construction) and Outcomes (use) at the Gram Panchayat and household levels leading to Swachh Bharat.

Funding for these new initiatives will be through the following:

  • Budgetary allocations;
  • Contributions to the Swachh Bharat Kosh;
  • Through commitments under Corporate Social responsibility (CSR)
  • Funding assistance from multilateral sources

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