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The whistleblower’s moral dilemma By Shashi Tharoor

Whistle blower is an evocative word; it immediately conjures up an image of a stern football referee blowing the whistle on some infraction, and that’s precisely what a whistleblower does. He (or she) is a figure of rectitude, someone who has witnessed wrongdoing from the inside and cannot abide it. Whistleblowers are the bane of those who break laws and rules: since most of the crimes they reveal are committed in secret, their testimony is indispensable to uncovering them.

The moral dilemma that confronts a whistle blower is that of his own complicity:

  • As an insider in the organisation where he finds a wrong being committed, he has a choice between staying loyal or blowing the whistle.
  • Sometimes whistleblowers have been involved in the wrongs they reveal but reach a point when they cannot take any more.
  • Sometimes their accidental or unauthorised discovery of a crime they were no part of, and of which they disapprove, makes them whistleblowers.

There are few things that can stop a sincerely motivated whistle blower.

  • Governments have the Official Secrets Act or the equivalent which prohibit employees from revealing secret information they may come across in the course of their work.
  • Some companies, especially large corporations, have a non-disparagement clause in their employment contracts to discourage whistleblowing.
  • But these only deter the timid, the intimidated or those with inactive consciences (who tell themselves they need the salary or the job more than the world needs to know about their boss’ illegal activities.)
  • Especially with the passage of whistleblower protection laws in most democracies, including ours, such considerations have rarely prevented whistleblowing.


  • It was a whistleblower listening in on an official phone call to take notes, who revealed President Trump’s misuse of his power for his personal political ends.
  • An Indian whistleblower revealed the fudging of pharmaceutical research data in Ranbaxy, practically destroying the company.

Background :

  • The phrase is said to have been invented by American civic activist Ralph Nader, but etymologists say it goes back to the 19th century and he should only be credited with bringing it into modern popular use.
  • The word was linked to the conduct of US and British police and law enforcement officials in the 19th century who used a whistle to warn a fugitive, alert the public or summon additional police.
  • The usage of the word has also evolved over time. An 1883 American newspaper story called a policeman who used his whistle to alert citizens about a riot a whistle blower (two words). Eight decades later, the two-word phrase had become a single hyphenated word, whistleblower. With its popularisation by Nader and the American media in the 1960s as a respectable term for people who revealed wrongdoing, it became the compound word whistleblower.

How it works ?

  • A whistleblower can choose to blow the whistle by revealing information or allegations either internally or externally.
  • Internally, a whistleblower can bring the wrongdoing he discovers to the attention of senior people within the same organisation who he believes are not complicit.
  • Sometimes corporations or government departments may have an officer assigned to receive internal whistleblower complaints.
  • Alternatively, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting an outsider – often the media but also, in government, another official, or if a straightforward crime is involved, police or law enforcement.

Risks Involved :

  • Whistleblowing is not a risk-free activity: it can cost you your job, and if your identity is revealed to the accused, result in reprisal actions against you and punitive retaliation: lawsuits, criminal charges, social stigma, and job termination are all possible consequences.
  • This would almost certainly be the case in most private companies; in government, a whistleblower is protected by law, but no private company is going to retain an employee, however moral, who has betrayed a confidence and lost his employer’s trust.
  • From a company’s point of view whistleblowing is unethical for breaching confidentiality, especially in businesses that handle sensitive client or patient information.
  • This is why most private company employees keep their head down when they discover their employer is breaking the law; at best, if their consciences are affronted, they set about looking for another job.
  • A morally upright whistleblower, therefore, is a rarity, and for that reason must be hailed as a hero.

Via HT.

Prelims 2020 Current Affairs Test Series

Hello Friends , We are launching a Prelims Current affairs based test series to help you cover current affairs for prelims 2o20. Our aim to help you cover the most important topics from a particular month, we segregated questions in to easy,medium and hard levels to provide in depth analysis.

Don’t take our word for it, write a Full current affairs test for free, and see the analysis and explanation. Signup now to access the free demo. 

Check out our test Page

  • 11 Monthly Current affairs tests from June 2019 to May 2020.
  • 1 Full Length Current affairs+ 1 Revision test in May 2020.
  • Questions are based on Newspapers PIB, RSTV, Yojana, Kurukshetra, PRS and latest government reports and documents.
  • Subject wise In-depth Analysis will be Provided along with detailed explanation.
  • Flexible schedule for student convenience to write test from any where at any time.
  • All India Ranking & Difficulty-wise Analysis
  • Test Series is available in English Medium Only.
  • Separate test of Budget, Economic survey & Govt Schemes.
  • Pay online for Instant Activation and get immediate access to All tests.
  • Test Series can be accessed anytime before 31st May 2020.

UPSC Civil Services Mains 2019 GS 3 Question Paper

Answer in 150 Words

  1. Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the goods and service taxes (GST) in India.Also, comment on the revenue implications of GST introduced in India since July 2017.
  2. Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? give reasons in support of your arguments.
  3. How far is integrated farming system (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production?
  4. Elaborate the impact of national watershed project in increasing agricultural production from water stressed areas?
  5. how was India benefited from the contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and Dr. M.S.Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively?
  6. what is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space program?
  7. Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment. Analyze the impact of sand mining along the lndian coasts,Citing  specific examples.
  8. Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and its threats to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterized? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters.
  9. The banning of ‘Jamaat-e-Islami’ in Jammu and Kashmir brought into focus the role of over-ground workers (OGWs) in assisting terrorist organizations. Examine the role played by OGWs in assisting terrorist organizations in insurgency affected areas. Discuss measures to neutralize influence of OGWs.
  10. What is CyberDome Project? Explain how it can be useful in control internet crimes in India.

Answer in 250 Words

  1. It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement.
  2. The public expenditure management is a challenge to the Government o f India in the context of budget making during the post-liberalization period. Clarify it.
  3. What are the reformative steps taken by the Government to Make food grain distribution system more effective?
  4. Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector. 
  5. how is Government of India protecting the traditional knowledge of medicine from patenting by pharmaceutical companies?
  6. How can biotechnology help to improve the living standards of farmers?
  7. define the concept of carrying capacity of an ecosystem as relevant to an environment. explain how understanding this concept is vital while planning for sustainable development of a region?
  8. .disaster preparedness is the first step in any disaster management process explain how hazard zonation mapping will help disaster mitigation in the case of landslides
  9. Indian government has recently strengthened the anti terrorism laws by amending the unlawful activities (prevention) act (UAPA)1967 and the NIA act.Analyse the changes in the context of prevailing security environment while discussing the scope and reason for opposing the UAPA by human rights organisations.
  10. Cross-border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing for the border in North east India .Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the India Myanmar border.Also discuss the steps to counter the challenges.

UPSC Essay Paper Mains 2019

Hello Friends, this is the UPSC Mains Essay Paper 2019 , You can Find the previous UPSC papers here. We encourage you to write essay on these topics and post PDF in our Daily AWP group or mail to [email protected] and we will be more than happy to give feedback on the same. Please remember Scanned PDF format only !

Section A
Write any one of the following essays in 1000-1200 words (125 marks)

  • Wisdom finds truth
  • Values are not what humanity is, but what humanity ought to be
  • Best for an Individual is not necessarily best for the society
  • Courage to accept and dedication to improve are two keys to success


Write any one of the following essays in 1000-1200 words (125 marks)

  • South Asian societies are woven not around the state, but around their plural cultures and identities.
  • Neglect of primary health care and education in India are reasons for its backwardness
  • Biased media is a real threat to Indian democracy
  • Rise of Artificial Intelligence: the threat of jobless future or better job opportunities through reskilling and upskilling.

We encourage you to write essay on these topics and post the answers in our Daily AWP group for Feedback and suggestions.

Download Economic Survey 2019 Free PDF and Highlights

Economic Survey 2019 has been table in the parliament , here is the link to both Volume 1 and Volume 2 

The Key Highlights of Economic Survey 2019

Shifting gears: Private Investment as the Key Driver of Growth, Jobs, Exports and Demand

  • Survey states that pathways for trickle-down opened up during the last five years; and benefits of growth and macroeconomic stability reached the bottom of the pyramid.
  • Sustained real GDP growth rate of 8% needed for a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25.
  • Virtuous Cycle” of savings, investment and exports catalyzed and supported by a favorable demographic phase required for sustainable growth.
  • Private investment– key driver for demand, capacity, labor productivity, new technology, creative destruction and job creation.
  • Survey departs from traditional Anglo-Saxon thinking by viewing the economy as being either in a virtuous or a vicious cycle, and thus never in equilibrium.
  • Key ingredients for a self-sustaining virtuous cycle:
    • Presenting data as a public good.
    • Emphasizing legal reforms.
    • Ensuring policy consistency.
    • Encouraging behavior change using principles of behavioral economics.
    • Nourishing MSMEs to create more jobs and become more productive.
    • Reducing the cost of capital.
    • Rationalizing the risk-return trade-off for investments.

Policy for Real People, Not Robots: Leveraging the Behavioral Economics of “Nudge”

  • Decisions by real people deviate from impractical robots theorized in classical economics.
  • Behavioral economics provides insights to ‘nudge’ people towards desirable behavior.
  • Key principles of behavioral economics:
    • Emphasizing the beneficial social norm.
    • Changing the default option.
    • Repeated reinforcements.
  • Using insights from behavioral economics to create an aspirational agenda for social change:
    • From ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ to ‘BADLAV’ (Beti Aapki Dhan Lakshmi Aur Vijay Lakshmi).
    • From ‘Swachh Bharat’ to ‘Sundar Bharat’.
    • From ‘Give it up” for the LPG subsidy to ‘Think about the Subsidy’.
    • From ‘Tax evasion’ to ‘Tax compliance’.

Nourishing Dwarfs to become Giants: Reorienting policies for MSME Growth

  • Survey focuses on enabling MSMEs to grow for achieving greater profits, job creation and enhanced productivity.
  • Dwarfs (firms with less than 100 workers) despite being more than 10 years old, account for more than 50% of all organized firms in manufacturing by number.
  • Contribution of dwarfs to employment is only 14% and to productivity is a mere 8%.
  • Large firms (more than 100 employees) account for 75% employment and close to 90% of productivity despite accounting for about 15% by number.
  • Unshackling MSMEs and enabling them to grow by way of:
    • Asunset clause of less than 10 years, with necessary grand-fathering, for all size-based incentives.
    • Deregulating labor law restrictions to create significantly more jobs, as evident from Rajasthan.
    • Re-calibrating Priority Sector Lending (PSL) guidelines for direct credit flow to young firms in high employment elastic sectors.
  • Survey also focuses on service sectors such as tourism, with high spillover effects on other sectors such as hotel & catering, transport, real estate, entertainment etc., for job creation.

Data “Of the People, By the People, For the People”

  • Society’s optimal consumption of data is higher than ever given technological advances in gathering and storage of data.
  • As data of societal interest is generated by the people, data can be created as a public good within the legal framework of data privacy.
  • Government must intervene in creating data as a public good, especially of the poor and in social sectors.
  • Merging the distinct datasets held by the Government already would generate multiple benefits.

Ending Matsyanyaya: How to Ramp up Capacity in the Lower Judiciary

  • Delays in contract enforcement and disposal resolution are arguably now the single biggest hurdle to the ease of doing business and higher GDP growth in India.
  • Around 87.5 per cent of pending cases are in the District and Subordinate courts.
  • 100 per cent clearance rate can be achieved by filling out merely 2279 vacancies in the lower courts and 93 in High Courts.
  • States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal need special attention.
  • Productivity improvements of 25 percent in lower courts, 4 percent in High Courts and 18 percent in Supreme Court can clear backlog.

How does Policy Uncertainty affect Investment?

  • Significant reduction in Economic Policy Uncertainty in India over the last one decade, even when economic policy uncertainty increased in major countries, especially the U.S.
  • Uncertainty dampens investment growth in India for about five quarters.
  • Lower economic policy uncertainty can foster a salutary investment climate.
  • Survey proposes reduction in economic policy uncertainty by way of:
    • Consistency of actual policy with forward guidance.
    • Quality assurance certification of processes in Government departments.

India’s Demography at 2040: Planning Public Good Provision for the 21st Century

  • Sharp slowdown in population growth expected in next 2 decades. Most of India to enjoy demographic dividend while some states will transition to ageing societies by 2030s.
  • National Total Fertility Rate expected to be below replacement rate by 2021.
  • Working age population to grow by roughly 9.7mn per year during 2021-31 and 4.2mn per year during 2031-41.
  • Significant decline to be witnessed in elementary school-going children (5-14 age group) over next two decades.
  • States need to consolidate/merge schools to make them viable rather than build new ones.
  • Policy makers need to prepare for ageing by investing in health care and by increasing the retirement age in a phased manner.

From Swachh Bharat to Sundar Bharat via Swasth Bharat: An Analysis of the Swachh Bharat Mission

  • Traceable health benefits brought about by Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).
  • 93.1% of the households have access to toilets.
  • 96.5% of those with access to toilets are using them in rural India.
  • 100% Individual Households Latrine (IHHL) Coverage in 30 states and UTs.
  • Financial savings from a household toilet exceed the financial costs to the household by 1.7 times on average and 2.4 times for poorest households.
  • Environmental and water management issues need to be incorporated in SBM for sustainable improvements in the long-term.

Enabling Inclusive Growth through Affordable, Reliable and Sustainable Energy

  • 2.5 times increase in per capita energy consumption needed for India to increase its real per capita GDP by $5000 at 2010 prices, and enter the upper-middle income group.
  • 4 times increase in per capita energy consumption needed for India to achieve 0.8 Human Development Index score.
  • India now stands at 4th in wind power, 5th in solar power and 5th in renewable power installed capacity.
  • Rs 50,000 crore saved and 108.28 million tonnes of CO2 emissions reduced by energy efficiency programmes in India.
  • Share of renewable (excluding hydro above 25 MW) in total electricity generation increased from 6% in 2014-15 to 10% in 2018-19.
  • Thermal power still plays a dominant role at 60% share.
  • Market share of electric cars only 0.06% in India while it is 2% in China and 39% in Norway.
  • Access to fast battery charging facilities needed to increase the market share of electric vehicles.

Effective Use of Technology for Welfare Schemes – Case of MGNREGS

  • Survey says that efficacy of MGNREGS increased with use of technology in streamlining it.
  • Significant reduction in delays in the payment of wages with adoption of NeFMS and DBT in MGNREGS.
  • Demand and supply of work under MGNREGS increased, especially in distressed districts.
  • Vulnerable sections of the society viz. women, SC and ST workforce increased under MGNREGS during economic distress.

Redesigning a Minimum Wage System in India for Inclusive Growth

  • Survey proposes a well-designed minimum wage system as a potent tool for protecting workers and alleviating poverty.
  • Present minimum wage system in India has 1,915 minimum wages for various scheduled job categories across states.
  • 1 in every 3 wage workers in India not protected by the minimum wage law.
  • Survey supports rationalization of minimum wages as proposed under the Code on Wages Bill.
  • Minimum wages to all employments/workers proposed by the Survey.
  • ‘National Floor Minimum Wage’ should be notified by the Central Government, varying across five geographical regions.
  • Minimum wages by states should be fixed at levels not lower than the ‘floor wage’.
  • Minimum wages can be notified based either on the skills or on geographical region or on both grounds.
  • Survey proposes a simple and enforceable Minimum Wage System using technology.
  • ‘National level dashboard’ under the Ministry of Labour & Employment for regular notifications on minimum wages, proposed by the Survey.
  • Toll-free number to register grievance on non-payment of the statutory minimum wages.
  • Effective minimum wage policy as an inclusive mechanism for more resilient and sustainable economic development.

State of the Economy in 2018-19: A Macro View

  • India still the fastest growing major economy in 2018-19.
  • Growth of GDP moderated to 6.8 per cent in 2018-19 from 7.2 per cent in 2017-18.
  • Inflation contained at 3.4 per cent in 2018-19.
  • Non-Performing Assets as percentage of Gross Advances reduced to 10.1 per cent at end December 2018 from 11.5 per cent at end March 2018.
  • Investment growth recovering since 2017-18:
    • Growth in fixed investment picked up from 8.3 per cent in 2016-17 to 9.3 per cent next year and further to 10.0 per cent in 2018-19.
  • Current account deficit manageable at 2.1 percent of GDP.
  • Fiscal deficit of Central Government declined from 3.5 percent of GDP in 2017-18 to 3.4 percent in 2018-19.
  • Prospects of pickup in growth in 2019-20 on the back of further increase in private investment and acceleration in consumption.

Fiscal Developments

  • FY 2018-19 ended with fiscal deficit at 3.4 per cent of GDP and debt to GDP ratio of 44.5 per cent (Provisional).
  • As per cent of GDP, total Central Government expenditure fell by 0.3 percentage points in 2018-19 PA over 2017-18:
    • 0.4 percentage point reduction in revenue expenditure and 0.1 percentage point increase in capital expenditure.
  • States’ own tax and non-tax revenue displays robust growth in 2017-18 RE and envisaged to be maintained in 2018-19 BE.
  • General Government (Centre plus states) on the path of fiscal consolidation and fiscal discipline.
  • The revised fiscal glide path envisages achieving fiscal deficit of 3 per cent of GDP by FY 2020-21 and Central Government debt to 40 per cent of GDP by 2024-25.

Money Management and Financial Intermediation

  • Banking system improved as NPA ratios declined and credit growth accelerated.
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code led to recovery and resolution of significant amount of distressed assets and improved business culture.
    • Till March 31, 2019, the CIRP yielded a resolution of 94 cases involving claims worthINR1, 73,359 crore.
    • As on 28 Feb 2019, 6079 cases involving INR2.84 lakh crores have been withdrawn.
    • As per RBI reports, INR50,000 crore received by banks from previously non-performing accounts.
    • Additional INR50,000 crore “upgraded” from non-standard to standard assets.
  • Benchmark policy rate first hiked by 50 bps and later reduced by 75 bps last year.
  • Liquidity conditions remained systematically tight since September 2018 thus impacting the yields on government papers.
  • Financial flows remained constrained because of decline in the equity finance raised from capital markets and stress in the NBFC sector.
    • Capital mobilized through public equity issuance declined by 81 per cent in 2018-19.
    • Credit growth rate y-o-y of the NBFCs declined from 30 per cent in March 2018 to 9 per cent in March 2019.

Prices and Inflation

  • Headline inflation based on CPI-C continuing on its declining trend for fifth straight financial year remained below 4.0 per cent in the last two years.
  • Food inflation based on Consumer Food Price Index (CFPI) also continuing on its declining trend for fifth financial year has remained below 2.0 per cent for the last two consecutive years.
  • CPI-C based core inflation (CPI excluding the food and fuel group) has now started declining since March 2019 after increment during FY 2018-19 as compared to FY 2017-18.
  • Miscellaneous, housing and fuel and light groups are the main contributors of headline inflation based on CPI-C during FY 2018-19 and the importance of services in shaping up headline inflation has increased.
  • CPI rural inflation declined during FY 2018-19 over FY 2017-18. However, CPI urban inflation increased marginally during FY 2018-19. Many States witnessed fall in CPI inflation during FY 2018-19.

Sustainable Development and Climate Change

  • India’s SDG Index Score ranges between 42 and 69 for States and between 57 and 68 for UTs:
    • Kerala and Himachal Pradesh are the front runners with a score of 69 amongst states.
    • Chandigarh and Puducherry are the front runners with a score of 68 and 65 respectively among the UTs.
  • Namami   Gange Mission launched as a key policy priority towards achieving the SDG 6, with a budget outlay of INR. 20,000 crore for the period 2015-2020.
  • For mainstreaming Resource Efficiency approach in the development pathway for achieving SDGs, a national policy on Resource Efficiency should be devised.
  • A comprehensive NCAP launched in 2019 as a pan India time bound strategy for:
    • Prevention, control and abatement of air pollution
    • Augmenting the air quality monitoring network across the country.
  • Achievements in CoP 24 in Katowice, Poland in 2018:
    • Recognition of different starting points for developed and developing countries.
    • Flexibilities for developing countries.
    • Consideration of principles including equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities.
  • Paris Agreement also emphasizes the role of climate finance without which the proposed NDCs would not fructify.
  • Though the international community witnessed various claims by developed countries about climate finance flows, the actual amount of flows is far from these claims.
  • Scale and size of investments required to implement India’s NDC requires mobilizing international public finance and private sector resources along with domestic public budgets.

External Sector

  • As per WTO, World trade growth slowed down to 3 per cent in 2018 from 4.6 per cent in 2017. Reasons:
    • Introduction of new and retaliatory tariff measures.
    • Heightened US-China trade tensions.
    • Weaker global economic growth.
    • Volatility in financial markets (WTO).
  • In Indian rupee terms growth rate of exports increased owing to depreciation of the rupee while that of imports declined in 2018-19.
  • Net capital inflows moderated in April-December of 2018-19 despite robust foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, outweighed by withdrawals under portfolio investment.
  • India’s External Debt was US$ 521.1 billion at end-December 2018, 1.6 per cent lower than its level at end-March 2018.
  • The key external debt indicators reflect that India’s external debt is not unsustainable.
  • The total liabilities-to-GDP ratio, inclusive of both debt and non-debt components, has declined from 43 per cent in 2015 to about 38 per cent at end of 2018.
  • The share of foreign direct investment has risen and that of net portfolio investment fallen in total liabilities, reflecting a transition to more stable sources of funding the current account deficit.
  • The Indian Rupee traded in the range of 65-68 per US$ in 2017-18 but depreciated to a range of 70-74 in 2018-19.
  • The income terms of trade, a metric that measures the purchasing power to import, has been on a rising trend, possibly because the growth of crude prices has still not exceeded the growth of India’s export prices.
  • The exchange rate in 2018-19 has been more volatile than in the previous year, mainly due to volatility in crude prices, but not much due to net portfolio flows.
  • Composition of India’s exports and import basket in 2018-19(P):
    • Exports (including re-exports): INR23, 07,663 Cr.
    • Imports: INR35, 94,373 Cr.
    • Top export items continue to be Petroleum products, precious stones, drug formulations, gold and other precious metals.
    • Top import items continue to be Crude petroleum, pearl, precious, semi-precious stones and gold.
    • India’s main trading partners continue to be the US, China, Hong Kong, the UAE and Saudi Arabia.
  • India has signed 28 bilateral / multilateral trade agreements with various country/group of countries. In 2018-19,
    • Exports to these countries stood at US$121.7 billion accounting for 36.9 per cent of India’s total exports.
    • Imports from these countries stood at US$266.9 billion accounting for 52.0 per cent of India’s total imports.

Agriculture and Food Management

  • Agriculture sector in India typically goes through cyclical movement in terms of its growth.
    • Gross Value Added (GVA) in agriculture improved from a negative 0.2 per cent in 2014-15 to 6.3 per cent in 2016-17 but decelerated to 2.9 per cent in 2018-19.
  • Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in agriculture as percentage of GVA marginally declined to 15.2 per cent in 2017-18 as compared to 15.6 per cent in 2016-17.
  • The public sector GCF in agriculture as a percentage of GVA increased to 2.7 per cent in 2016-17 from 2.1 per cent in 2013-14.
  • Women’s participation in agriculture increased to 13.9 per cent in 2015-16 from 11.7 per cent in 2005-06 and their concentration is highest (28 per cent) among small and marginal farmers.
  • A shift is seen in the number of operational land holdings and area operated by operational land holdings towards small and marginal farmers.
  • 89% of groundwater extracted is used for irrigation. Hence, focus should shift from land productivity to ‘irrigation water productivity’. Thrust should be on micro-irrigation to improve water use efficiency.
  • Fertilizer response ratio has been declining over time. Organic and natural farming techniques including Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) can improve both water use efficiency and soil fertility.
  • Adopting appropriate technologies through Custom Hiring Centers and implementation of ICT are critical to improve resource-use efficiency among small and marginal farmers.
  • Diversification of livelihoods is critical for inclusive and sustainable development in agriculture and allied sectors. Policies should focus on
    • Dairying as India is the largest producer of milk.
    • Livestock rearing particularly of small ruminants.
    • Fisheries sector, as India is the second largest producer.

Industry and Infrastructure

  • Overall Index of Eight Core Industries registered a growth rate of 4.3 percent in 2018-19.
  • India’s ranking improved by 23 to 77th position in 2018 among 190 countries assessed by the World Bank Doing Business (DB) Report, 2019.
  • Road construction grew @ 30 km per day in 2018-19 compared to 12 km per day in 2014-15.
  • Rail freight and passenger traffic grew by 5.33 per cent and 0.64 per cent respectively in 2018-19 as compared to 2017-18.
  • Total telephone connections in India touched 118.34 crore in 2018-19
  • The installed capacity of electricity has increased to 3, 56,100 MW in 2019 from 3, 44,002 MW in 2018.
  • Public Private Partnerships are quintessential for addressing infrastructure gaps
  • Building sustainable and resilient infrastructure has been given due importance with sector specific flagship programmes such as SAUBHAGYA scheme, PMAY etc
  • Institutional mechanism is needed to deal with time-bound resolution of disputes in infrastructure sector

Services Sector

  • Services sector (excluding construction) has a share of 54.3 per cent in India’s GVA and contributed more than half of GVA growth in 2018-19.
  • The IT-BPM industry grew by 8.4 per cent in 2017-18 to US$ 167 billion and is estimated to reach US$ 181 billion in 2018-19.
  • The services sector growth declined marginally to 7.5 per cent in 2018-19 from 8.1 per cent in 2017-18.
    • Accelerated sub-sectors: Financial services, real estate and professional services.
    • Decelerated sub-sectors: Hotels, transport, communication and broadcasting services.
  • Services share in employment is 34 per cent in 2017.
  • Tourism:
    • 10.6 million foreign tourists received  in 2018-19 compared to 10.4 million in 2017-18.
    • Forex earnings from tourism stood at US$ 27.7 billion in 2018-19 compared to US$ 28.7 billion in 2017-18.

Social Infrastructure, Employment and Human Development

  • The public investments in social infrastructure like education, health, housing and connectivity is critical for inclusive development.
  • Government expenditure (Centre plus States) as a percentage of GDP on
    • Health: increased to 1.5 per cent in 2018-19 from 1.2 per cent in 2014-15.
    • Education: increased from 2.8 per cent to 3 per cent during this period.
  • Substantial progress in both quantitative and qualitative indicators of education is reflected in the improvements in Gross Enrolment Ratios, Gender Parity Indices and learning outcomes at primary school levels.
  • Encouraging Skill Development by:
    • Introduction of the skill vouchers as a financing instrument to enable youth obtain training from any accredited training institutes.
    • Involving industry in setting up of training institutes in PPP mode; in curriculum development; provision of equipment; training of trainers etc.
    • Personnel of Railways and para-military could be roped in for imparting training in difficult terrains.
    • Create a database of Instructors, skill mapping of rural youth by involving local bodies to assess the demand-supply gaps are some of the other initiatives proposed.
  • Net employment generation in the formal sector was higher at 8.15 lakh in March, 2019 as against 4.87 lakh in February, 2018 as per EPFO.
  • Around 1, 90, 000 km of rural roads constructed under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) since 2014.
  • About 1.54 crore houses completed under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) as against a target of 1 crore pucca houses with basic amenities by 31st March, 2019.
  • Accessible, affordable and quality healthcare being provided through National Health Mission and Ayushman Bharat scheme for a healthy India.
  • Alternative healthcare, National AYUSH Mission launched to provide cost effective and equitable AYUSH healthcare throughout the country to address the issue of affordability, by improving access to these services.
  • Employment generation scheme, MGNREGA is prioritized by increasing actual expenditure over the budgetary allocation and an upward trend in budget allocation in the last four years.

Explained: Read between the lines

Parivarthan read between the lines is an initiative to help students self study rather than depend on some source for current affairs preparation . Some of you have expressed some doubts about how the program helps.

  • The interest and curiosity of the aspirant are the primary targets of this program, our intention is to provoke them and make him/her do some research.
  • Let’s assume you are a  fresher and you have not focused enough on syllabus copy, previous mains and prelims papers , so you don’t know what are important key words/topics that you are supposed to learn.
  • Example “quasi judicial bodies” this is a key word in an article, you may know what it is, you may not.
      1. we ask a question: what are quasi judicial bodies — you at least come to know what they are
      2. Few days again in news SEBI -IRDA – NHRC or some other body will be in news — which of them are quasi judicial bodies ? you will put in some effort .
      3. we keep repeating this process on a regular basis, with multiple revisions you will not only know what is quasi judicial bodies, you will also know what are the examples
      4. Advantage ?  you can answer mains questions, (2016 mains GS paper 2 question ) What is quasi judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples.
  • The same logic applies to almost all mains syllabus example: Article 370 ?  Fiscal Deficit ? Data Localisation ? Layered approach with out rote learning and burdening your self with lot of information in short period of time.
  • Every day marginal gains make huge difference We can call this The 1 Percent Rule
  • Prelims papers are also testing in depth knowledge with crystal clear clarity, so instead of superficial reading of broad range of topics UPSC is expecting depth from aspirants, so continuous revision of topics which are in news will help.
  • Example:
    • 5G technology – it’s in the news now days (almost every day) – how many of you know exactly what is latency and how is it better than 4G? S & T revision
    • What is zero hour ? starred and unstarred questions ? we expect you to open laxmikanth and read Parliament chapter selectively. Polity
    • What is WPI ? base year ? Ramesh singh will help Economy
    • Bio accumulation or magnification – Shankar book will help
  • In this way picking up keywords/ topics from static will help you revise static syllabus as well. Again 1-2 topics a day with out burdening you .
  • So you read Current affairs, static syllabus daily from almost all the subjects , then you will revise it multiple times and interconnect with other sections of the syllabus.
  • This also stops you from doing PHD (I mean time waste)  on one topic in particular as you have so many topics to read you will restrict your self to some basic study and then move on.
  • 3-4 months down the line you know meaning and have basic idea about all the key words which you see in newspapers.
  • Then depending on their importance and relevance in the news you will focus more on some and ignore some.
  • Answer writing : With more conceptual clarity and good repository of keywords , you can write precise and quality answers .
    • example: using appropriate words in appropriate places makes a huge difference in the answers
    • Pink collar jobs, sunrise industries, etc.
  • Refer to Anudeep’s Gs paper 2 and Gs paper 3 answers for understanding the usage of exact keywords and conveying the message.
  • Lastly : We use our experience + Syllabus + prelims + mains papers as filtering mechanism to tell total freshers to focus on them, because of their inexperience and exposure they may ignore certain topics and key words, we at least act as a warning mechanism till you can do this on your own .
  • FAQ
  • Do I have to work so hard ? IMHO it’s smart work rather than hard work, as you are focusing on precise topic or question .
  • Can I read magazines : we are not against them, but again IMHO it should be a revision rather than a first source of information. Your notes and your efforts are the strength and core of your preparation.
  • Notes making: You most certainly should write down facts and data. Analysis should be developed around them. Static books have all the static keywords (zero Hour) so just keep revising the books.
  • Do I need to go in depth or basic reading will do ?  it totally depends on topic and which stage of preparation are you in. For freshers just basic idea will do.
  • I still have some doubts : You can mail to [email protected] or ping me on Telegram @naylak
  • Thank you for your valuable time and patience.

UPSC IAS Topper’s Answer Sheets PDF collection 2018

Hello friends here is a collection of 2018 UPSC toppers answer sheet PDF’s to help you understand how to approach mains or what we can learn from their writing style and so on. Hope this helps you to improve your mains score.

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We keep Updating this post regularly from all sources.

Kanishak Kataria Rank – 1

Akshat Jain Rank – 2

Junaid Ahmad Rank – 3

Srushti Deshmukh Rank 5

Karnati Varun Reddy Rank 7


Pujya Priyadarshani Rank 11

Namrata Jain – Rank 12


ALOK KUMAR rank 41


Kanishak Kataria AIR 1 Mains GS Strategy, Sources and PDF Notes

UPAC Topper Kanishak Kataria AIR 1 started sharing his Strategy, Sources and PDF Notes via a Telegram channel .

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Kanishak Kataria UPSC Topper marks

In His own words :

Hi, I will be sharing some Evernote notes which I used. They are derived from my classnotes, some test series trivia, other online and offline information. There might be some typos here and there. Please bear with them. These notes are in no ways exhaustive. They were supplemented by other offline material, for both Prelims and Mains.

Kanishak Kataria Notes

Kanishak Kataria Books List:

In his own words: Many people have asked me about my booklist. It’s more or less similar to my friend Prudhvitej’s booklist (AIR 24 UPSC 2017) – replace all classnotes with Vajiram classnotes. It’ll take me sometime to arrange all the information. Till then you can refer to his sources:


  • The given booklist is neither exhaustive nor sufficient for qualification in prelims.
  • Much of it was constrained by my optional.
  • Depending on own level of comfort, students should refer to the books.
  • I DID NOT copy any other topper’s booklist.
  • I just got a basic understanding and then read what I felt most comfortable with.
  • Each topic was also updated through Test series reverse learning – Vajiram and Vision – both available online.
  • Internet was also used to improve the collected information.
  • All class-notes are from Vajiram classes made by myself and NOT COPIED.
  • Vision PT 365s were referred for all the topics, specially Environment and Science and Technology.


Ancient History:
  • Jain Sir class notes
  • Only few chapters from NCERT (couldn’t remember much)
  • Test series reverse learning
  • Medieval: No bandwidth to prepare. Only relied on test series trivia.
Modern History
  • Parmar Sir class notes
  • Spectrum (selective reading)
Art and Culture:
  • Vajiram class notes + test series.
  • No bandwidth to read any book.

Indian Polity

  • NCERT: Indian Constitution at Work
  • Vajiram Classnotes -Ravindran Sir, Abhey Sir, Abhilash Sir, Gautam Sir
  • Laxmikanth


  • NCERTs – XI, XII
  • Vajiram classnotes -Shivarpit Sir, Manocha Sir, Amit Sir
  • Self Map work
  • Rajtanil lectures – Only Physical Geography
  • Internet – pmfias


  • NCERT – XII Macroeconomics
  • Vajiram classnotes -Vibhas Sir, Samyak Sir, Kapuria Sir, Sanghi Sir
  • Sriram booklet (not end to end but topic wise)
  • Economic Survey – Part II
  • Internet – Investopedia, Arthapedia, Vikaspedia etc.


  • Vajiram classnotes -Bindu Ma’am for Biotech, Binoy Sir for Space Tech + Nanotech,Rahul Sir for everything else
  • Internet reading


  • NCERT Biology XII – last 4 chapters
  • Vaishali Ma’am class notes
  • Self notes using Unacademy, Internet
  • Shankar Book- selected chapters (didn’t like the book that much)

Current Affairs

  • Daily newspaper without fail
  • IYB: only class notes from Vajiram
  • PT 365s
  • Internet
  • No time for Magazines and Monthly compilations


  • Newspapers + Vision PTs

Kanishak Kataria Strategy and Mathematics Optional

Watch From 41 Minute Onward:

Evernote links :

Ancient History :

  • Own strategy: Had very less time. So tried to cover class notes only. If someone has time/interest, please refer to other standard books like XIth NCERT and/or Nitin Singhania. Ancient History Notes in the “history” notebook are from Jain Sir’s classes at Vajiram. A lot of information has been added to it through test series materials.Those facing issues in this particular topic along with paucity of time, can try to cover these notes. Hopefully, they will be of some benefit in the examination.

Kanishak Kataria AIR 1 Answer sheets PDF Download:

Will keep updating for the benefit of students. You can Follow our channel for regular updates

Happy to Help

  • Hello friends, some of you are new here and some of you know us already , we are team Parivarthan based in Hyderabad, we started this initiative in 2013. WE were aspirants back then, initially started by two , one is in service , the other is here (obviously) .
  • Then because of various personal and professional reasons we just stuck to newspaper suggested articles and occasional article sharing and nothing else in telegram and website.
  • We are teaming back with people who are in service + gave upsc interview(s) & mains to pool our resources to help genuine aspirants, specially for people who are working and cannot quit jobs due to various obligations , people from remote areas who cannot afford coaching or stay in cities but are genuinely interested or late bloomers who are done with coaching but realized importance of the exam/mentors now.
  • We prefer quality over quantity , we focus on person to person basis in mentoring and guiding and helping with what we can like evaluating answers, essay and occasional pep talk about over all strategy.
  • This is a free initiative , in 6 years of existence we never took a dime for guidance and suggestions. When we start test series or paid mentor-ship we will explicitly tell, till then Parivarthan is free.
  • So any interest candidates who are looking for some support or some kind of suggestions are free to mail us [email protected] or ping me on Telgram @naylak
  • If any one wants to write articles, create videos and gain from teaching are more than welcome given the quality is assured.
  • Hope you will stick around and good things are coming from Parivarthan stay tuned.
  • Every mark helps be it in prelims or interview, we have experience and willingness to help if you have determination and trust.
  • We have walked in the shoes you are in now, we are willing to help genuinely with out any expectations as we know the pain and pitfalls.
  • No effort is too big and no detail is too small, so let us work for building a better India through a honest bureaucracy of-course.
  • Please do not contact for materials,PDF and videos.
  • Suggestions and Ideas always welcome, your identity and advice is safe with us 6 years and counting…

Thank you
[email protected]

Yojana Magazine PDF 2019

Yojana magazine published on a monthly basis from the year 2019 available in PDF format you can download it for Free. For Yojana magazines from 2013-2018 PDF please visit this page

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Yojana Hindi and English Monthly PDF Free download

Yojana Hindi and English Monthly PDF Summary Free download

  • January Yojana summary PDF Download  Vajiram
  • February Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • March Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • April Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • May Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • June Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • July Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • August Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • September Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • October Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • November Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram
  • December Yojana summary PDF Download Vajiram

You can also Subscribe to Yojana magazines through online facility, they will send the magazine by post. Here is the link to subscribe for Yojana/Kurukshetra online

Prelims 2019

Hello Friends , Clearing UPSC is THE DREAM or goal or proving a point to some people, what ever be the motivation, if you are reading this then you are in the world of UPSC , a bit deep than most people.

So not beating around the bush I will come straight to the point, Prelims 2019 is 65/66 days away and what are you doing about it ?


  • Freshers:
  • I will write this attempt and there is no confusion in my mind — why ? — It’s burning your boats– no excuses , no confusion, either you are writing or not , there is no in-between , dilemma scenario.
  • If you are a total fresher or new to UPSC do not write for the experience sake with out preparation( Benchmark : If you have not read laxmikanth , you are not eligible) Again it’s not becasue you get questions form laxmikanth , it shows your preparedness.
  • I have not completed static books… still 65 days are there read them with focus in worst case scenario it will still help you gain lot of knowledge and next attempt will be much easier.
  • Seniors:
  • This is my serious attempt aspirants….. this is your only attempt…. every minute wasted today is a regret in the future.
  • There are always excuses and distractions and weakness … but are they really worth wasting your attempt ?
  • Over confidence lot: Last year I it’s cool I can manage.. but you have to put in more effort or equivalent but not less..
  • Do not over focus on mains till last minute .. prelims is not that easy any more !
  • Reading same books again and again is hard work , I know. But it’s the best thing we can do, escaping is easy, find excuses is easy, thinking we have attempts left is easy.. but sitting there for 6-8 hours that is the real challenge.


We can divide them in to three layers

  1. NCERT – analytical and factual
  2. Static books – analytical and factual
  3. Current affairs – analytical and factual

There are enough blog posts and toppers articles and videos to fill a library on what to read and where, so make sure no stone is left un-turned .


  • Join any reputed test series. Pay if possible brings seriousness as you paid money. Quality work needs appreciation.
  • If you have access to Free test series do solve them, don’t become material collector- solve questions today dont postpone till may, after reading I will solve, that will never happen.
  • Solve Previous UPSC papers.
  • More the merrier , solving means learning a topic from explanation and it’s peripheral areas.
  • Don’t fall for cheap and more no of test series — Reputed institutes provide quality, any one with word and a telegram channel can run test series , so if you follow any and every test series you are playing with fire and of course your life and attempt.
  • Do not be cheap with your life, paying money or buying quality is investment in your future self, saving 5000rs today and wasting an attempt is the most foolish thing one can d0 .
  • At the same time don’t buy more than one at a time.. complete any one series with dedication with exam like environment.


  • Get rid of toxic people
  • Maintain a healthy distance from Friends/relatives who are negative.
  • Most important is stay away from non serious aspirants — reading 18 hours a day avoid them 😛 too much hungama I say !
  • Laziness and not being serious is contagious, if every one you know is not working hard you too might get in to the same mindset..
  • Good roommates and friends create a synergy and pull you up, and put fear in your heart to work hard, motivation will come from with in.
  • Join reading rooms and library to create momentum.
  • Write a journal every night before sleeping so that we can feel some shame on the amount of time wasted 😛 or can feel good vibes by seeing all things we accomplished in a day and also plan for tomorrow.
  • DO mediation , i know it sounds so boring… weak perhaps, but for some it will help a lot .
  • Create a system around you to keep you motivated till next 65 days … life will never be the same.
  • Above all Parents are your real strength.

So all serious aspirants know this much , that we have to read NCERT/Static books/Solve many many mocks/Read news papers/ and repeat … nothing special I guess 30000 most serious and potential aspirants are doing this .. but what differentiates the successful one’s and the almost there but not there unlucky batch ?

Confidence and desperation ! Be desperate , we think we are serious but we are not fully serious , it’s like theory and practice, in mind we are all super duper bumper serious aspirants, but in action? Knowledge is never the reason of failure among the top 30k serious aspirants they are all same more or less.. it’s the dedication and calmness that comes with confidence that makes all the difference in the world.

Throw away your personal energy guzzlers and issues and toxic people for 65 days above all look in the mirror and answer yourself are you serious in theory or practice ?

Hope this will start a thought in your mind where you spend a minute to introspect and re adjust and focus again .. all the very best for a great attempt.

PS: I am done with UPSC, so I wrote this post to share my views with aspirants and not supported/affiliate or paid by any institute. Would be happy to hear your views back in comments/@naylak on telegram or [email protected]

Parivarthan was started in 2013 to share what we know about UPSC

Thanks and regards

Insights free Current Affairs Material 2018

Insights free current affair monthly magazines are shared here and this is a list post of all the 2018 current affairs magazines. Below are the links where you can download Free IAS preparation material from Insights.

  1. Insights Jan 2018 Current Affairs
  2. Insights Feb 2018 Current Affairs
  3. Insights March 2018 Current Affairs
  4. Insights April 2018 Current Affairs
  5. May 2018 current affairs PART 1
  6. Insights May 2018 Current Affairs
  7. Insights June 2018 Current Affairs
  8. Insights July 2018 Current Affairs
  9. Insights August 2018 Current Affairs
  10. Insights September 2018 Current Affairs
  11. Insights October 2018 Current Affairs
  12. Insights November 2018 Current Affairs
  13. Insights December 2018 Current Affairs